Federalist #69: "The President is to be commander-in-chief of
the army and navy of the United States. In this respect, his
authority would be nominally the same with that of the king of
Great Britain, but in substance much inferior to it. It would
amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of
the military and naval forces.; while that of the British king
extends to the declaring of war and to the raising and
regulating of fleets and armies - all which, by the Constitution
under consideration, would appertain to the legislature." -
"The separation of the power of declaring war from that of
conducting it, is wisely contrived to exclude the danger of its
being declared for the sake of its being conducted." - James
"This system will not hurry us into war; it is calculated to
guard against it. It will not be in the power of a single man,
or a single body of men, to involve us in such distress; for the
important power of declaring war is vested in the legislature at
large: this declaration must be made with the concurrence of the
House of Representatives: from this circumstance we may draw a
certain conclusion that nothing but our interest can draw us
into war." - James Wilson
"Considering that Congress alone is constitutionally invested
with the power of changing our condition from peace to war, I
have thought it my duty to await their authority for using force
in any degree which could be avoided." - Thomas Jefferson
"The power to declare war, including the power of judging the
causes of war, is fully and exclusively vested in the
legislature" - James Madison
"Allow the President to invade a neighboring nation, whenever he
shall deem it necessary to repel an invasion, and you allow him
to do so, whenever he may choose to say he deems it necessary
for such purpose; and you allow him to make war at pleasure.
Study to see if you can fix any limit to his power in this
respect, after you have given him so much as you propose. If,
today, he should choose to say he thinks it necessary to invade
Canada, to prevent the British from invading us, how could you
stop him? You may say to him, 'I see no probability of the
British invading us' but he will say to you, 'be silent; I see
it, if you don't.'" - Abraham Lincoln
"As the executive cannot decide the question of war on the
affirmative side, neither ought it to do so on the negative
side, by preventing the competent body from deliberating on the
question." - Thomas Jefferson
"The executive has no right, in any case, to decide the
question, whether there is or is not cause for declaring war." -
"The Constitution is not an instrument for the government to
restrain the People; it is an instrument for the People to
restrain the government." - Patrick Henry
Ten Reasons to Impeach George Bush and Dick Cheney
1. Violating the United Nations Charter by launching an illegal "War of
Aggression" against Iraq without cause, using fraud to sell the war to Congress
and the public, misusing government funds to begin bombing without Congressional
authorization, and subjecting our military personnel to unnecessary harm,
debilitating injuries, and deaths.
2. Violating U.S. and international law by authorizing the torture of thousands
of captives, resulting in dozens of deaths, and keeping prisoners hidden from
the International Committee of the Red Cross.
3. Violating the Constitution by arbitrarily detaining Americans, legal
residents, and non-Americans, without due process, without charge, and without
access to counsel.
4. Violating the Geneva Conventions by targeting civilians, journalists,
hospitals, and ambulances, and using illegal weapons, including white
phosphorous, depleted uranium, and a new type of napalm.
5. Violating U.S. law and the Constitution through widespread wiretapping of the
phone calls and emails of Americans without a warrant.
6. Violating the Constitution by using "signing statements" to defy hundreds of
laws passed by Congress.
7. Violating U.S. and state law by obstructing honest elections in 2000, 2002,
2004, and 2006.
8. Violating U.S. law by using paid propaganda and disinformation, selectively
and misleadingly leaking classified information, and exposing the identity of a
covert CIA operative working on sensitive WMD proliferation for political
9. Subverting the Constitution and abusing Presidential power by asserting a
"Unitary Executive Theory" giving unlimited powers to the President, by
obstructing efforts by Congress and the Courts to review and restrict
Presidential actions, and by promoting and signing legislation negating the Bill
of Rights and the Writ of Habeas Corpus.
10. Gross negligence in failing to assist New Orleans residents after Hurricane
Katrina, in ignoring urgent warnings of an Al Qaeda attack prior to Sept. 11,
2001, and in increasing air pollution causing global warming.